Women's Rights in China

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Women's Rights in China

 

Female Sex Trafficking in China

 

The number of female sex workers in China is increasing at an alarming rate. It is estimated that there were 25,000 female sex workers in 1985, a number that has risen to about 6 million in 2000 by some accounts, and to 10 million in 2001 by others.[i]

 

As of 2013, there are an estimated 4 to 6 million sex workers in China, the vast majority of them female.[ii]

                    

In 1933 the city of Shanghai had an STI epidemic which was noted to have been caused by the large group of young, poor, unmarried men who lived there at the time, a population similar to what most of China will soon face because of the high sex ratios at birth.[iii]

 

There are concerns that surplus men may increase HIV/AIDS incidences through two primary means.  First, when surplus men become clients of sex workers, HIV/AIDS incidences may rise rapidly.  Second, since unprotected same-sex behavior is well known for its high risk in spreading HIV/AIDS, and since surplus men may increase homosexual activities, an extraordinarily off-balanced male population may contribute to the increase of HIV/AIDS in the future.[iv]

 

One study found that the sexual demands from these surplus men may increase the high-risk heterosexual or homosexual activities and thereafter increase HIV/AIDS and other STD/STI incidences, ultimately urging that the impact of these surplus males on STD incidence should therefore be addressed urgently.[v]

 

Many unattached men migrate from rural areas to urban destinations, patronizing prostitutes there. In doing so, these men could turn China's HIV epidemic - now confined to certain high-risk populations - into a more generalized one by creating "bridging" populations from high- to low-risk individuals. Such male bridging populations have fueled HIV epidemics in Cambodia and sub-Saharan Africa.[vi]

 

If prostitution rates continue as they are, the high male gender ratio will cause an increase in the number of men who hire prostitutes by about 3%, which would quickly increase the number of Chinese infected with HIV.[vii]

 

Surveys have shown that STIs are already prevalent among female sex workers in China. In Guangdong, out of 966 female sex workers checked, 14% had syphilis, 32% had chlamydia, 8% had gonorrhea, 12.5% had trichomoniasis, and 1.4% were HIV positive.[viii]

 

Many female sex workers in China participate in high risk behavior.  One survey found that 39% of those surveyed said that they did not consistently use protection. Another survey found that only 30% claimed to use condoms regularly.[ix]

 

Discrimination against females, inequality of the sexes, and poverty are all factors that lead to male preference and gendercide in China, and are also factors that make it difficult to successfully combat HIV among female sex workers.[x]

 

There are currently an estimated 780,000 people living with HIV in China. During 2011, around 28,000 people died from AIDS.  There are pockets of high infection among specific sub-populations and the danger of the epidemic spreading further into the general population persists.  This became particularly evident in 2009 when China reported that AIDS had become the country’s leading cause of death among infectious diseases for the first time ever, surpassing both tuberculosis and rabies.[xi]

 

As of 2012, AIDS related deaths in China had increased by 8.6 percent to 17,740 deaths, compared with the previous year, according to the country's health figures. And 68,802 new HIV/AIDS cases were reported in 2012 up to October, according to Chinese state media. Additionally, some HIV/AIDS advocates say the number of cases is underestimated, in part because many people who have HIV/AIDS may never have been tested to know their status.[xii]

 

Unmarried men are more likely to contract and carry sexually transmitted infections, such as HIV.[xiii]

 

Prostitution, which will increase in prevalence as the number of unmarried men increases, leads to about 20% of all new cases of HIV in China.[xiv]

 

Unmarried, poor, Chinese men, who are most likely to engage in paid sex, often act in ways that will promote the spread of STIs.  Surveys have shown that 89% of this population often does not use condoms consistently.[xv]

 

Nine out of ten Burmese women trafficked into China will end up in a forced marriage.[xvi]

 

Traffickers traffic an estimated 80 to 90 percent of the North Korean women in China, and Chinese authorities refuse to provide these victims with legal alternatives to repatriation.  An estimated 70 percent of North Korean refugees in China are women, and, in March 2012, the director of a South Korean NGO said that between 20,000 and 30,000 North Korean women were trapped in ‘‘what many observers see as a form of slavery.’’[xvii]

 

The trafficking of North Korean women has created a black market in which refugees have been ‘‘moved and traded like merchandise, with many sold as ‘brides,’ kept in confinement, and sexually assaulted,’’ according to sources cited in a March 2011 Radio Free Asia report.  There has been a high demand for wives in northeastern China where severe sex ratio imbalances have spurred the Chinese market for trafficked North Korean brides, and where poor, disabled, or elderly men have difficulty finding wives.[xviii]

 

Prostitution is most common in areas with more men, especially in countries with a high male sex ratio.[xix]

 

According to a survey about 11% of young Chinese men (20-24) have had unprotected sex with a sex worker.[xx]

 

Trafficked brides can be bought for as little as $460 in certain places in China.[xxi]

 

The trafficking of brides has allowed those who live in areas with a high male sex ratio to continue to find wives, which has prevented a natural solution to sex selective abortion.[xxii]

 

Article 240 of China’s Criminal Law defines the trafficking of persons as ‘‘abducting, kidnapping,

buying, trafficking in, fetching, sending, or transferring a woman or child, for the purpose of selling the victim.’’ This definition does not automatically prohibit forms of trafficking such as forced adult and child labor, commercial sex trade of minors over 14 years old, or trafficking of men, which are covered under Article 3 of the UN TIP Protocol.[xxiii]

 

The Chinese government acceded to the UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol) in December 2009. As of 2011, the Chinese government has revised some, but not all, of its legislation to conform to the Palermo Protocol. Still, the Chinese government’s legal definition of trafficking does not conform to international standards.[xxiv]

 

Female Suicide in China

 

In China, suicide rates are higher for women than men,[i] while in all other countries (with the exception of the small island nation of Sao Tome and Principe) the suicide rate is higher for men than for women.[ii]

 

In fact, the Beijing Suicide Research and Prevention Center reported in 2009 that the suicide rate for females was three times higher than for males.[iii]

 

Suicide is the leading cause of death for adult women living in rural areas in China.[iv]

 

56% of the world’s female suicides occur in China,[v] but only 19% of the world’s population lives in China.[vi]

 

In more rural areas of China, suicide accounts for one third of all female deaths.[vii]

 

500 women commit suicide in China each day.[viii]

 

Easy access to pesticides contributes to the prevalence of suicides among rural women.[ix]

 

Violence against women and girls, discrimination in education and employment, the traditional preference for male children, birth-limitation policies, and other societal factors contribute to the high female suicide rate.[x]

 

According to researcher Steven Mosher, it is no accident that, “China's women have the highest suicide rate in the world, not to mention the highest rates of breast cancer, all in consequence of having had their babies killed in utero by a state ruthlessly bent on population control.”[xi]

 

 

Abortion Statistics in China

 

Chinese data show that 13 million abortions are performed each year, for an average rate of 35,000 abortions per day.[xii]

 

One field researcher has concluded that he is fairly certain that most of the 13 million annual abortions are forced.[xiii]

 

According to Steven Mosher, most of the millions of abortions carried out in China have the character of a rape; that is, they were performed on women who were ordered, or even physically forced, to submit to the knife.[xiv]

 

Since 1971, doctors have performed 336 million abortions, have performed 196 million sterilizations, and have inserted 403 million intrauterine devices. (For comparison, in the US, where the population is about one-quarter the size of China’s, an estimated 50 million abortions have been performed since 1973.)[xv]

 

55% of all women in China have had an abortion and 27.3% of women in their 20’s—about 27.3 million women—have had an abortion.[xvi]

 

In 2000, more than half of all abortions in China were a result of prenatal sex selection.[xvii]

 

One survey of 8,846 women showed that of those women who have had one abortion, 35.97% have another abortion shortly after the first one.[xviii]

 

An average of 8 million women undergo abortions every year in China.[xix]

 

The abortion rate among women in China is 29.3%, which far exceeds the average level of other developed nations; in the population of 20-29 year-old young women, the abortion rate is 62%.[xx]

 

In Shanghai, Beijing and other large cities, the rate of repeat abortion is higher than 50%.[xxi]

 

Regulations requiring women who violate family-planning policy to terminate their pregnancies still exist in the 25th, 42nd, and 22nd provisions of the Population and Family Control Regulation of Liaoning, Jilin, and Heilongjiang provinces, respectively. An additional 10 provinces--Fujian, Guizhou, Guangdong, Gansu, Jiangxi, Qinghai, Sichuan, Shanxi, Shaanxi, and Yunnan--require unspecified "remedial measures" to deal with unauthorized pregnancies.[xxii]

 

While some researchers have suggested that Hepatitis is responsible for the high sex ratio, this is not supported by the evidence.  Looking at the 2000 census data, if a second child is a male it will arrive, on average, 4 months later than a second born female.  This delay in birth indicates that there is human intervention, abortions or infanticide, taking place before the birth of a male second child.[xxiii]

 

 

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Annual Abortion Numbers by Country[xxiv]

 

Abortion Numbers by Country (1980-2010)[xxv]

 

One-Child Policy Punishment in China

 

Mandatory abortion, which is often referred to as “remedial measures” (bujiu cuoshi) in government reports, is endorsed explicitly as an official policy instrument in the regulations of 18 of China's 31 provincial-level jurisdictions.[i]

 

Chinese law does not stipulate punishment for officials who demand or implement forced abortion.[ii]

 

In accordance with national measures, local governments direct officials to punish non-compliance with heavy fines, termed ‘‘social support fees’’ (shehui fuyang fei), which force many couples to choose between undergoing an unwanted abortion and incurring a fine much greater than the average annual income.[iii]

 

Children may go without household registration (hukou) in China because they are born out of plan and their parents do not pay the necessary fines.  Lack of a valid hukou raises barriers to access to social benefits typically linked to the hukou, including subsidized healthcare and public education.[iv]

 

In the late 1990’s, there were a reported 300,000 officials whose job was to enforce the One-Child Policy. In 2005, China’s Family Planning Association claimed a membership of 92 million members, organized into more than a million branches, who helped out with enforcement.[v]

 

Officials are given a financial incentive structure to meet abortion and sterilization quotas, leading to extortion and coercion.[vi]

 

The vaginas of rural women are routinely checked to ensure that there was no recent birth.[vii]

 

The law states that family-planning bureaus will conduct pregnancy tests on married women and provide them with unspecified "follow-up" services. Some provinces fined women who did not undergo periodic pregnancy tests.[viii]

 

In 2008, Chongqing out-of-quota residents were imposed fines of between 5,000 yuan (US$731) and 10,000 yuan (US$1,464) if they refused to perform an abortion, in addition to the ordinary social compensation fee of 2,000 yuan (US$293) to 5,000 yuan (US$731).[ix]

 

In 2008, Shanxi couples were assessed a social compensation fee equal to 20% of a couple’s combined income once each year for seven years; for a third child, the fine rose to 40% of combined income for 14 years.[x]

 

Reports in Guangxi claimed that fines for violating the One-Child Policy ranged from 500 yuan, or about $65, to 70,000 yuan, or about $9,000.[xi]

 

According to economist Ebenstein, higher fines lead to an increased sex ratio.  He calculates that a 100% increase in the fine for an additional child leads to about a 1% increase in the fraction of male births.[xii]

 

Some local governments offer rewards to informants who report population planning violations. Local government reports during the 2011 reporting year mentioned rewards for informants in amounts ranging from 100 yuan (US$15) to 6,000 yuan (US$926) per case for verified information on violations by either citizens or officials, including concealment of out-of-plan births, false reports of medical procedures, and falsified family planning documents.[xiii]

 

Local governments incentivize family planning officials to ensure strict implementation of population planning policies. For example, in March 2011, the Maojing township government in Qingyang city, Gansu province, issued a report on the ‘‘outstanding results’’ of the government’s ‘‘rectification activities.’’ The report calls for officials to ‘‘spare no efforts’’ in implementing population policies and notes that village cadres face a penalty of 1,500 yuan (US$230) for each woman with two daughters whom they fail to sterilize. Conversely, they are promised a reward of 500 yuan (US$77) for each tubal ligation that they see through to completion.[xiv]

 

Many provinces link job promotion with an officials ability to meet or exceed population planning targets, thus providing a powerful structural incentive for officials to employ coercive measures in order to meet population goals.[xv]

 

An example of abortion quotas: in 2009, Yunnan officials developed a implementation plan that outlined abortion targets for specific groups: ‘‘strictly prohibit the birth of multiple children; for women who have multiple out-of-plan children and become pregnant again, the abortion rate must reach 100 percent; for women who have two out-of-plan children and become pregnant again, the abortion rate must exceed 90 percent; for women who have one out-of-plan child and become pregnant again, the abortion rate must exceed 85 percent.’’[xvi]

 

An example of invasive local enforcement: In a small village in remote Guangdong, a director of a local family planning center showed reporter Ma Jian the record book that meticulously charted the menstrual cycles and pelvic examination results of every woman of childbearing age in the village. The director said that 98% of the 280 women were fitted with IUDs, and that every three months, he broadcast an announcement through the village summoning every woman for a mandatory ultrasound to check that her IUD is still in place.[xvii]

 

In 2007, Hubei expelled 500 cadres and dismissed 395 government officials, including 3 provincial lawmakers and 4 members of the local Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), for having ‘‘unauthorized’’ children.[xviii]

 

From February to April, 2010, Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province was the site of a high-profile court proceeding in which a 30-year-old female plaintiff sued the local Family Planning Bureau, claiming that she had been barred from a civil service position in the county government for giving birth to a child before marriage. Although she married the father soon after the child's birth, the court ruled that the Family Planning Bureau's original decree citing the birth as out of wedlock held, which did make her ineligible for the government position.[xix]

 

Teachers who violate birth quotas are at risk of losing their retirement benefits.[xx]

 

In one province, officials in 2010 vowed to engage in a “100-day battle” in which they would “insist without wavering on the principle of IUD insertion after the first child, surgical sterilization after the second child, and abortion of out-of-plan pregnancies.”[xxi]

 

One Guangdong law gives these orders to officials:  “Strictly prohibit out-of-plan second births or multiple births; those who have out-of-plan pregnancies must adopt abortion measures, force those who exceed birth limits to have an abortion. Out-of-plan children will not be allowed to enjoy benefits for villagers; for a period of 15 years, parents of out-of-plan children will not be allowed to enjoy benefits for villagers, gain employment at a village-run enterprise, or be granted documents.”[xxii]

 

When the Family Planning Police sterilize women for violating the One-Child Policy, these sterilizations are most often not performed by highly trained gynecological surgeons, especially in the countryside. Often, there are infections and other complications.[xxiii]

 

The One-Child Policy seems to be causally linked to the increased sex ratio in China. Mothers who face stricter restrictions and higher fines are more likely to have a son once they are facing possible punishment.  One example is the birth rates of women who have had a single daughter.  The sex ratio of children born after this first daughter changes based on the policy being enforced, with the mothers in the one child area being 3 percentage points more likely to have a son.[xxiv]

 

The highest fines are charged in Shanghai, where a violator faces a minimum fine of about 63,000 yuan (more than $10,200) or a maximum fine of about 413,800 yuan (more than $67,000). The maximum fine equals 11.4 years of average urban annual income and 25.8 years of average rural annual income. [xxv]

 

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[i] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2012, pg. 90-91 http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-112shrg76190/pdf/CHRG-112shrg76190.pdf

[ii] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2012, pg. 90, http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-112shrg76190/pdf/CHRG-112shrg76190.pdf

[iii] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2012, pg. 92-93, http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-112shrg76190/pdf/CHRG-112shrg76190.pdf

[iv] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2012, pg. 93, http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-112shrg76190/pdf/CHRG-112shrg76190.pdf

[v] Wang Feng, 2005, Can China Afford One Child Policy? http://www.eastwestcenter.org/fileadmin/stored/pdfs//api077.pdf

[vi] U.S. State Department Kemp-Kasten UNFPA Determination (June 26, 2008), p. 5.)

[vii] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2009, http://www.cecc.gov/pages/annualRpt/annualRpt09/CECCannRpt2009.pdf

[viii] U.S. State Department, U.S. Department of State 2010 Human Rights Report on China, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2010/eap/154382.htm

[ix] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2009, http://www.cecc.gov/pages/annualRpt/annualRpt09/CECCannRpt2009.pdf

[x] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2009, http://www.cecc.gov/pages/annualRpt/annualRpt09/CECCannRpt2009.pdf

[xi] Medical News Today, “Penalties For One-Child Policy Violations Prompt Clashes In Southwest China,” May 24, 2007, http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/71801.php

[xii] Avraham Ebenstein, “The ‘Missing Girls’ of China and the Unintended Consequences of the One Child Policy,” Journal of Human Resources 45.1 (2010): 87-115. http://pluto.huji.ac.il/~ebenstein/Ebenstein_OneChildPolicy_2010.pdf

[xiii] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2011, pg. 113, http://www.cecc.gov/pages/annualRpt/annualRpt11/AR2011final.pdf

[xiv] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2011, pg. 113, http://www.cecc.gov/pages/annualRpt/annualRpt11/AR2011final.pdf

[xv] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2009, http://www.cecc.gov/pages/annualRpt/annualRpt09/CECCannRpt2009.pdf

[xvi] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2009, http://www.cecc.gov/pages/annualRpt/annualRpt09/CECCannRpt2009.pdf

[xvii] Jian, Ma, “China’s Barbaric One-Child Policy,” The Guardian, May 5, 2013, http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2013/may/06/chinas-barbaric-one-child-policy

[xviii] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2008, http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=110_house_hear...

[xix] U.S. State Department, U.S. Department of State 2010 Human Rights Report on China, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2010/eap/154382.htm

[xx] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2008, http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=110_house_hear...

[xxi] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2010, http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=111_cong_house...

[xxii] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2010, http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=111_cong_house...

[xxiii] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2009, http://www.cecc.gov/pages/annualRpt/annualRpt09/CECCannRpt2009.pdf

[xxiv] Avraham Ebenstein, “The ‘Missing Girls’ of China and the Unintended Consequences of the One Child Policy,” Journal of Human Resources 45.1 (2010): 87-115. http://pluto.huji.ac.il/~ebenstein/Ebenstein_OneChildPolicy_2010.pdf

[xxv] One‐Child Policy Fines Relative to Income Levels in China, A Report by All Girls Allowed. November 1, 2012. http://www.allgirlsallowed.org/sites/default/files/One-Child%20Policy%20Fines%20Relative%20to%20Income%20Levels%20in%20China%20-%20A%20Report%20by%20All%20Girls%20Allowed.pdf

 


[i] World Health Organization, Woman and Health: Today’s Evidence, Tomorrow’s Agenda, 2009, pg. 54 http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2009/9789241563857_eng.pdf

[ii] World Health Organization, “Suicide Rates per 100,000 by Country, Year and Sex (Table),” 2011 http://www.who.int/mental_health/prevention/suicide_rates/en/

[iii] U.S. State Department, U.S. Department of State 2010 Human Rights Report on China, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2010/eap/154382.htm

[iv] World Health Organization, Woman and Health: Today’s Evidence, Tomorrow’s Agenda, 2009, pg. 54 http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2009/9789241563857_eng.pdf

[v] Dubois, Matthew, “The Last Resort: China’s Growing Suicide Problem,” The World of Chinese, March 12, 2013 http://www.theworldofchinese.com/2013/03/the-last-resort-chinas-growing-suicide-problem/

[vi] China.org.cn, “Chinese Account for 19 Percent of World Population, Government, July 11, 2011 http://www.china.org.cn/china/2011-07/11/content_22967992.htm

[vii] Dubois, Matthew, “The Last Resort: China’s Growing Suicide Problem,” The World of Chinese, March 12, 2013 http://www.theworldofchinese.com/2013/03/the-last-resort-chinas-growing-suicide-problem/

[viii] U.S. State Department, U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2009, http://www.cecc.gov/pages/annualRpt/annualRpt09/CECCannRpt2009.pdf

[ix] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2009, http://www.cecc.gov/pages/annualRpt/annualRpt09/CECCannRpt2009.pdf

[x] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2010, http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=111_cong_house...

[xi] Bohon, Dave, “China Reports 336 Million Abortions in Last 40 Years,” The New American, March 20, 2013 http://www.thenewamerican.com/world-news/item/14845-china-reports-336-million-abortion-in-last-forty-years

[xii] Data from China’s National Family Planning Commission, as reported by China Daily and cited in: Jiang, Vicky, “Of the 13 Million Abortions in China, Most are Forced,” Epoch Times, December 9, 2012, http://www.theepochtimes.com/n2/china-news/one-child-policy-abortions-in-china-most-are-forced-21819-all.html

[xiii] Jiang, Vicky, “Of the 13 Million Abortions in China, Most are Forced,” Epoch Times, December 9, 2012, http://www.theepochtimes.com/n2/china-news/one-child-policy-abortions-in-china-most-are-forced-21819-all.html

[xiv] Bohon, Dave, “China Reports 336 Million Abortions in Last 40 Years,” The New American, March 20, 2013 http://www.thenewamerican.com/world-news/item/14845-china-reports-336-million-abortion-in-last-forty-years

[xv] Foreign Times, “Data reveal scale of China abortions,” March 15, 2013, http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/6724580a-8d64-11e2-82d2-00144feabdc0.html#axzz2Nhxzw6d3

[xvi] Shanghai Institute of Family Planning Technical Instruction, as cited by Stephen Ertelt, “More Than 13 Million Abortions a Year in China, 55 Percent of Women Have One,” LifeNews.com, February 18, 2009t http://www.lifenews.com/int1091.html

[xvii] Eberstadt, Nicholas, “A Global War Against Baby Girls: Sex-Selective Abortion Becomes a Worldwide Practice,”  American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, May 1, 2011. http://www.allgirlsallowed.org/global-war-against-baby-girls-sex-selecti...

[xviii] Shanghai Institute of Family Planning Technical Instruction, as cited by Stephen Ertelt, “More Than 13 Million Abortions a Year in China, 55 Percent of Women Have One,” LifeNews.com, February 18, 2009t http://www.lifenews.com/int1091.html

[xxii] U.S. State Department, U.S. Department of State 2010 Human Rights Report on China, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2010/eap/154382.htm

[xxiii] Avraham Ebenstein, “The ‘Missing Girls’ of China and the Unintended Consequences of the One Child Policy,” Journal of Human Resources 45.1 (2010): 87-115. http://pluto.huji.ac.il/~ebenstein/Ebenstein_OneChildPolicy_2010.pdf

[xxiv] U.S.A. stats for 2005, Alan Guttmacher Institute; Australian stats for 2003, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare; Canadian stats for 2005, Statistics Canada; China stats from China Daily, 2009; U.K. stats for 2004, U.K. Department of Health (referenced at http://www.theepochtimes.com/n2/content/view/21819/)

[xxv] USA stats from Center for Disease Control & Guttmacher Institute; Australia stats from the Statesman’s Year-Book, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare; Canada stats from Statistics Canada Therapeutic Abortions; UK stats from UK Department of Health; China stats from China Statistical Yearbook, Susan Greenhalgh, William Lavely, National Population and Family Planning Commission, Dudley Poston, Thomas Scharping and China Daily.  Note that as data is incomplete for some years, projected estimates were used based on trends in surrounding years.  Based on China Daily’s report of 13 million abortions in 2008, there is reason to believe that official government officials for 2007 (indicating 7.6 million abortions) are severely underreported.  Thus, China’s 400 million abortions are a low estimate.

 


[i]Tucker, Joseph Da, et al. “Surplus men, sex work, and the spread of HIV in China.” AIDS 19.6 (2005): 539-547. http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/fulltext/2005/04080/surplus_men,_sex_work,_and_the_spread_of_hiv_in.1.aspx

[ii] Human Rights Watch, “China: End Violence Against Sex Workers,” May 14, 2013, http://www.hrw.org/news/2013/05/14/china-end-violence-against-sex-workers

[iii] Tucker, Joseph Da, et al. “Surplus men, sex work, and the spread of HIV in China.” AIDS 19.6 (2005): 539-547. http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/fulltext/2005/04080/surplus_men,_sex_work,_and_the_spread_of_hiv_in.1.aspx

[iv] Pan, Yuanyi and Jianhong Wu, “Population Profiling in China by Gender and Age: Implication for HIV Incidences,” BMC Public Health, 2009: 9(Suppl. 1):S9 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2779511/.

[v] Pan, Yuanyi and Jianhong Wu, “Population Profiling in China by Gender and Age: Implication for HIV Incidences,” BMC Public Health, 2009: 9(Suppl. 1):S9 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2779511/.

[vi] New York Times, Dudley Poston & Peter Morrison, China: Bachelor Bomb, September 14, 2005

[vii] Avraham Y. Ebenstein and Ehan Jennings Sharygin, “The Consequences of the ‘Missing Girls’ Of China,” World Band Economic Review, 23, no 3 (2009): 409.

[viii] Tucker, Joseph Da, et al. “Surplus men, sex work, and the spread of HIV in China.” AIDS 19.6 (2005): 539-547. http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/fulltext/2005/04080/surplus_men,_sex_work,_and_the_spread_of_hiv_in.1.aspx

[ix] Tucker, Joseph Da, et al. “Surplus men, sex work, and the spread of HIV in China.” AIDS 19.6 (2005): 539-547. http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/fulltext/2005/04080/surplus_men,_sex_work,_and_the_spread_of_hiv_in.1.aspx

[x] Tucker, Joseph Da, et al. “Surplus men, sex work, and the spread of HIV in China.” AIDS 19.6 (2005): 539-547. http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/fulltext/2005/04080/surplus_men,_sex_work,_and_the_spread_of_hiv_in.1.aspx

[xi] Avert, “HIV & AIDS in China,” http://www.avert.org/aidschina.htm (accessed May 30, 2013).

[xii] Park, Madison, “The Price of Blood: China Faces HIV/AIDS Epidemic,” CNN, December 10, 2012, http://www.cnn.com/2012/11/30/health/hiv-china-li

[xiii] Poston, Dudley, “Statement for Congressional Press Conference on the Issue of Gendercide and its Implications for Global Security,” All Girls Allowed, June 1, 2011. http://www.allgirlsallowed.org/statement-gendercide-and-implications-glo...

[xiv] Poston, Dudley, “Statement for Congressional Press Conference on the Issue of Gendercide and its Implications for Global Security,” All Girls Allowed, June 1, 2011. http://www.allgirlsallowed.org/statement-gendercide-and-implications-glo...

[xv] Tucker, Joseph Da, et al. “Surplus men, sex work, and the spread of HIV in China.” AIDS 19.6 (2005): 539-547. http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/fulltext/2005/04080/surplus_men,_sex_work,_and_the_spread_of_hiv_in.1.aspx

[xvi] Hseng Khaio Fah, “China’s Imbalanced Gender Ratio at Birth Causing Women Trafficking from Neighbors,” Shan Herald, December 15, 2009.

[xvii] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2012, pg. 109, http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-112shrg76190/pdf/CHRG-112shrg76190.pdf

[xviii] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2012, pg. 109, http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-112shrg76190/pdf/CHRG-112shrg76190.pdf

[xix] Avraham Y. Ebenstein and Ehan Jennings Sharygin, “The Consequences of the ‘Missing Girls’ Of China,” World Band Economic Review, 23, no 3 (2009): 409-410.

[xx] Tucker, Joseph Da, et al. “Surplus men, sex work, and the spread of HIV in China.” AIDS 19.6 (2005): 539-547. http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/fulltext/2005/04080/surplus_men,_sex_work,_and_the_spread_of_hiv_in.1.aspx

[xxi] Taken from  2011 testimony, as recorded in U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2011, pg. 133, http://www.cecc.gov/pages/annualRpt/annualRpt11/AR2011final.pdf

[xxii] Mara Hvistendahl, Unnatural Selection: Choosing Boys Over Girls, and the Consequences of a World Full of Men. New York: PublicAffairs, 2011, page 190.

[xxiii] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2010, http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=111_cong_house...

[xxiv]U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2011, pg. 27-28, http://www.cecc.gov/pages/annualRpt/annualRpt11/AR2011final.pdf

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