Research Articles

Following are a number of well-researched articles on the One-Child Policy from reputable sources.



Estimating a Dynamic Model of Sex-Selection in China


Demography (Vol. 48, Issue 2. May 2011, pp. 783-811)

Avraham Ebenstein, Ph.D. (Robert Wood Johnson Scholar in Health Policy at Harvard University; Lecturer, Department of Economics, Hebrew University)


  • Economic simulations show that a financial subsidy of 1-year's income to families without a son would reduce the number of “missing girls” in China by 67%.




The Issue of Gendercide and Its Implications for Global Security


Statement to Press on June 1, 2011, Capitol Hill, Washington, D.C.

Dudley L. Poston, Jr., Ph.D.


  • Professor Poston reveals the effects of gendercide around the world and shows why the United States must help in fighting it.



A Global War Against Baby Girls: Sex-Selective Abortion Becomes a Worldwide Practice


Handbook of Clinical Gender Medicine (Basel, Karger, 2012, pp. 18–36)

Nicholas Eberstadt, Ph.D.


  • Over the past three decades the world has come to witness an ominous and entirely new form of gender discrimination: sex-selective feticide, implemented through the practice of surgical abortion with the assistance of information gained through prenatal gender determination technology. All around the world, the victims of this new practice are overwhelmingly female – in fact, almost universally female.



Surplus men, sex work, and the spread of HIV in China


AIDS: Official Journal of the International AIDS Society (8 April 2005, Volume 19, Issue 6, pp. 539-547)

Tucker, Joseph D; Henderson, Gail E; Wang, Tian F; Huang, Ying Y; Parish, William; Pan, Sui M; Chen, Xiang S; Cohen, Myron S
  • From a sociological perspective, an increase in surplus men will have a profound effect on the future of HIV spread in China and on the success or failure of future interventions.


The Missing Girls of China and the Unintended Consequences of the One-Child Policy


Journal of Human Resources (University of Wisconsin Press)

Avraham Ebenstein, Ph.D. (Robert Wood Johnson Scholar in Health Policy at Harvard University; Lecturer, Department of Economics, Hebrew University)


  • Economist Avraham Ebenstein concludes that China's “missing girls” is causally linked to enforcement of the One Child Policy.



Challenges and Countermeasures


Beijing Review, No. 21 (May 26, 2011)

Mu Guangzong (Deputy Director of the Expert Panel for Comprehensive Reform of the National Population and Family Planning Commission; Professor at Peking University's Institute of Population Research)


  • Ma Guangzhong, Professor at Peking University and Advisor to the National Population and Family Planning Commission, explains why China needs to relax its One-Child Policy.



China’s excess males, sex selective abortion, and one child policy


British Medical Journal (April 9, 2009)

Wei Xing Zhu, professor; Li Lu, professor and head of department; Therese Hesketh, senior lecturer


  • The researchers clarify current trends and geographical patterns in the sex ratio at birth and in the population aged under 20 in China and to determine the roles played by sex selective abortion and the one child policy.
  • Conclusions: In 2005 males under the age of 20 exceeded females by more than 32 million in China, and more than 1.1 million excess births of boys occurred. China will see very high and steadily worsening sex ratios in the reproductive age group over the next two decades. Enforcing the existing ban on sex selective abortion could lead to normalisation of the ratios.



China's Future and Its One-Child Policy


American Enterprise Institute (September 17, 2007)

Nicholas Eberstadt


  • This essay is excerpted from an address by Mr. Eberstadt at the inaugural World Economic Forum in Dalian, China, on September 7, 2007.
  • China faces many challenges in the future, including the development of more effective financial institutions and managing growing urbanization. But its future success rests on abandoning its destructive "One-Child Policy." The coercive program has been a disastrous mistake, and its consequences are already being felt.



Population, Policy, and Politics: How Will History Judge China’s One-Child Policy?


Brookings Institution, February 2013

Population and Development Review Vol. 38, pp. 115–129 (2012)

Feng Wang, Yong Cai and Baochang Gu


  • "One of the main puzzles of modern population and social history is why, among all countries confronting rapid population growth in the second half of the twentieth century, China chose to adopt an extreme measure of birth control known as the one-child policy. A related question is why such a policy, acknowledged to have many undesirable consequences, has been retained for so long, even beyond the period of time anticipated by its creators."
  • Full PDF available HERE.



China’s Population Destiny: The Looming Crisis


Demographic Dividend and Prospects for Economic Development in China


Feng Wang, University Of California, Irvine, And Andrew Mason, University Of Hawaii And The East West Center, 

  • United Nations Expert Group Meeting On Social And Economic Implications Of Changing Population Age Structures



Time to Drop the One-Child Policy


Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences

Zuo Xuejin, Executive Vice President at the Shanghai Academy of Social Sceinces, and Yang Xiaoping, Assistant Researcher at the Academy’s Population and Development Institute
  • Members of China's academic elite have been advocating for an end to the One-Child Policy for several years, on the basis of economic development and demographic stability.  This article clearly shows that the fears about overpopulation are not founded on science, but rather on urban legend.


Can China Afford to Continue Its One-Child Policy?


Analysis from the East-West Center, No. 77, March 2005

Wang Feng



China’s One-Child Policy at 30

The Brookings Institute

 Feng Wang and Cai Yong


Annual Reports from the Congressional-Executive Commission on China

The Congressional-Executive Commission on China


  • The CECC is a bipartisan commission that was formed to educate both Congress and the White House about issues relating to human rights in China.


The Effect of China's One-Child Family Policy after 25 Years

Research by Therese Hesketh, Ph.D., Li Lu, M.D., & Zhu Wei Xing, M.P.H from The New England Journal of Medicine