One-Child Policy Statistics

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According to the Chinese government, over 336 million forced and coerced abortions have taken place under the One-Child Policy, the majority being girls due to a cultural preference for boys.  The result has been disastrous for the Chinese people.  In addition to the statistics below about the policy, we encourage visitors to view these pages: Frequently Asked Questions and Research Articles on Gendercide and the One-Child Policy.

 

 

(Photo: Feng Jianmei after the forced abortion of her 7-month-old baby in June 2012.)

 

One-Child Policy Statistics

 

One-Child Policy Laws in China

 

Li Bin, the head of the National Population and Family Planning Commission, said after the 30th Anniversary of the One-Child Policy that China will not drop the policy, and that it will “stick to the family-planning policy in the coming decades.”[i]

 

In March 2013, Communist party leaders confirmed that "China will not change its basic state policy on family planning.[ii]

 

Fifteen million Chinese women have volunteered to become government agents responsible for gathering family planning information and enforcing the One-Child Policy.[iii]

 

Local governments in some Chinese provinces mandate termination of pregnancies for out-of-plan pregnancies.[iv]

                                              

Following the 12 May 2008, earthquake, the Chinese government admitted that citizens must have a birth permit to be allowed to give birth, that sterilization occurs under the One-Child Policy, and that a whole population of unregistered children—who have no access to education or health care—exist.[v]

                                         

After their first child, most mothers must receive an IUD implantation and have quarterly check-ups to ensure the IUD remains in place.[vi]

 

All couples must apply for a birth permit before starting a pregnancy.[vii]

 

Nearly two-thirds of all Chinese couples (900 million people, or almost 3x the US population) are under the jurisdiction of the policy.[viii]

               

Government funding for the One-Child Policy increased 3.6 times in the 1990’s alone, from

1.34 billion yuan in 1990 to 4.82 billion yuan in 1998—a rate of increase faster than that for economic construction or national defense.[ix]

 

According to the Ministry of Finance, per capita funding of the One-Child Policy increased from 2.64 yuan in 1995 to 8.93 yuan in 2002 at the central government level.[x]

 

In 1980, China had about 60,000 full-time personnel working for the One-Child Policy. By 1995, this number rose to over 400,000, nearly a 7x increase.[xi]

 

Most government ministries were required to cut employees by 50% in the late 1990’s, but the One-Child Policy system was able to get away with a cut of only 25%, keeping 300,000 on the government payroll.[xii]

 

China commits over 4.82 billion yuan ($708.8 million) each year towards birth control programs.[xiii]

Economic and social changes have been more influential than the One-Child Policy in reducing fertility rates.[xiv]

 

China’s Family Planning Association claims a membership of 92 million, organized into more than a million branches.[xv]

 

Only 52.4% of urban women of childbearing age and 9.6% of rural women have received post-abortion contraception instructions, thus leading to unavoidable repeat pregnancies.[xvi]

                                  

There is an 88.2% chance of infertility in patients with a history of induced abortion, and more than four repeat abortions can increase the incidence of infertility up to 92%.[xvii]

 

The Congressional-Executive Commission on China confirmed in 2010 a report that some local governments are specifically targeting migrant workers for forced abortions.[xviii]

 

At the most recent count, 23 of China’s provinces and municipalities have adopted language that bans late-term forced abortion since July 2012. Together, these provinces contain over 87% of China’s total population.[xviv]

 

Dissatisfaction About One-Child Policy Within China

 

In July 2012, a group of prominent Chinese scholars issued an open letter calling for a rethink of the country’s One-Child Policy.  "The birth-approval system built on the idea of controlling population size as emphasized in the current 'Population and Family Planning Law' does not accord with provisions on the protection of human rights contained in the nation's constitution," the authors of the letter wrote, adding that a rewriting of the law was "imperative."[xix]

 

In July 2012, researchers with the Research Development Center, a prominent government-affiliated think tank, stated in a newspaper opinion piece that Beijing should consider revising the policy. The researchers focused on China's aging population and a predicted dearth of young workers.[xx]

 

In June 2012, photographs of 23-year-old Feng Jianmei lying on a hospital bed next to her aborted seven-month-old baby were posted online. Ms. Feng—who already has a 5-year-old daughter—was forced to terminate her pregnancy after she and her husband failed to come up with the cash to pay a 40,000 yuan ($6,300) fine for having a second child.  The forced termination of Ms. Feng's pregnancy—for which the local government has apologized—drew widespread condemnation and prompted calls to eliminate the one-child rule.[xxi]

 

In March 2007, 29 delegates to the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference called for eliminating the One-Child Policy entirely because of the developmental and social problems that it caused China’s youth.[xxii]

 

In February 2008, Zhao Baige, Vice-Minister of the National Population and Family Planning Commission (NPFPC), told reporters that the government was considering changing the population planning policy ‘‘incrementally.’’  Shortly thereafter, a deputy to the National People’s Congress called for replacing the current policy with a new formula that encourages all couples to have one child, allows them to have two, prohibits them from having three, and rewards them for having none.[xxiii]

 

A debate in the Chinese media is emerging about possible reform of the One-Child Policy, but the government has not yet taken action to introduce national reform measures.[xxiv]

 

In 2010, Chinese experts and officials engaged in a relatively open exchange in the state-run media

about how to address demographic trends that are expected to detrimentally impact China’s future development.[xxv]

 

The One-Child Policy is being criticized by the Chinese people more and more.  In fact, in 2011, Zhang Feng, director of Guangdong’s Population and Family Planning Commission, asked for the policy to be relaxed in his province.  Specifically he asked that couples would be allowed two children if one of them was an only child.[xxvi]

 

Chinese couples show a strong and persistent preference for two children.[xxvii]

 

A Family Planning Commission survey in 2006 showed that 70 percent of the women questioned want to be allowed to have two or more children.[xxviii]

 

Dissatisfaction with the policy has driven some women to take a medication that is supposed to stimulate ovulation, increasing their chance to have multiple births.[xxix]

 

 

One-Child Policy Violations of Chinese Law and International Treaties

 

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, of which China is a signatory, celebrated its 60th Anniversary on December 10; 2008.  China’s coercive enforcement of its One-Child Policy violates the spirit and the letter of this Universal Declaration, which protects the rights of women, children, and the family.[xxx]

 

The One- Child Policy violates provisions of the “Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women” (CEDAW), which China ratified in September 1980, and also the “Declaration of the Fourth World Conference on Women” held in Beijing in 1995.[xxxi]

 

One-Child Policy is not consistent with the standards set by the 1994 Programme of Action of the Cairo International Conference on Population and Development.[xxxii]

 

Controls imposed on Chinese women and their families and additional abuses engendered by the system, from forced abortion to discriminatory policies against ‘‘out-of-plan’’ children, also violate standards in the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.[xxxiii]

 

China's 2002 Population and Family Planning Law states in Article 4 that officials “shall perform their administrative duties strictly in accordance with the law, and enforce the law in a civil manner, and they may not infringe upon the legitimate rights and interests of citizens.'' The law also states in Article 39 that ``any functionary of a State organ who commits one of the following acts in the work of family planning, if the act constitutes a crime, shall be investigated for criminal liability in accordance with the law; if it does not constitute a crime, he shall be given an administrative sanction with law; his unlawful gains, if any, shall be confiscated: (1) infringing on a citizen's personal rights, property rights, or other legitimate rights and interests; (2) abusing his power, neglecting his duty, or engaging in malpractices for personal gain.”[xxxiv]

 

Law and International Standards that the Chinese government has committed to abiding by:

 

                2002 Population and Family Planning Law

                (http://www.gov.cn/english/laws/2005-10/11/content_75954.htm)

 

                1995 Beijing Declaration

                (http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/beijing/platform/declar.htm)

 

                1994 Programme of Action of the Cairo International Conference on Population and       Development

                (http://unfpa.org/public/site/global/lang/en/pid/1973)

 

                Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women

                (http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/cedaw.htm)

 

                Convention on the Rights of the Child

                (http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/crc.htm)

 

                International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights

                (http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/cescr.htm)

 

 

 


Photo Evidence of One-Child Policy in China

 

Families abiding by the One-Child Policy are given a “One-Child Parent Glory Certificate” after the wife accepts tubal ligation (surgical sterilization).[xxxv]

 

Pregnancy Check Service Situation Records, on the left is the check for birth control, the right is where the inspector places their name.[xxxvi]

 

 

 

The banner reads:  “When you are required by policies to get an abortion, but you don’t. Your house will be destroyed and your buffalo will be confiscated.”[xxxvii]

 

 

The banner reads: “We would rather have blood flow like river, than allow one extra baby to be born.”[xxxviii]

 

 

 

 

Strictness of One-Child Policy by Province[xxxix]

 

 

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[ii] Jian, Ma, “China’s Barbaric One-Child Policy,” The Guardian, May 5, 2013, http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2013/may/06/chinas-barbaric-one-child-policy

[iii] Tiefenbrun, Susan, Decoding International Law: Semiotics and the Humanities (New York, New York: Oxford University Press, 2010), 371.

[iv] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2008, http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=110_house_hear...

[v] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2009, http://www.cecc.gov/pages/annualRpt/annualRpt09/CECCannRpt2009.pdf

[vi] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2009, http://www.cecc.gov/pages/annualRpt/annualRpt09/CECCannRpt2009.pdf

[vii] Laogai Research Foundation, “One Child Policy,” http://laogai.org/our_work/one-child-policy

[viii]  Wang Feng, 2005, Can China Afford One Child Policy? http://www.eastwestcenter.org/fileadmin/stored/pdfs//api077.pdf

[ix] Wang Feng, 2005, Can China Afford One Child Policy? http://www.eastwestcenter.org/fileadmin/stored/pdfs//api077.pdf

[x] Wang Feng, 2005, Can China Afford One Child Policy? http://www.eastwestcenter.org/fileadmin/stored/pdfs//api077.pdf

[xi] Wang Feng, 2005, Can China Afford One Child Policy? http://www.eastwestcenter.org/fileadmin/stored/pdfs//api077.pdf     

[xii] Wang Feng, 2005, Can China Afford One Child Policy? http://www.eastwestcenter.org/fileadmin/stored/pdfs//api077.pdf    

[xiii] Wang Feng, 2005, Can China Afford One Child Policy? http://www.eastwestcenter.org/fileadmin/stored/pdfs//api077.pdf

[xiv] Wang Feng, 2005, Can China Afford One Child Policy? http://www.eastwestcenter.org/fileadmin/stored/pdfs//api077.pdf

[xv] Wang Feng, 2005, Can China Afford One Child Policy? http://www.eastwestcenter.org/fileadmin/stored/pdfs//api077.pdf

[xviii] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2010, http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=111_cong_house...

[xviv] "Chinese Provinces That Banned Late-Stage Abortion Following Feng Jianmei's Forced Abortion." Reported by All Girls Allowed on September 25, 2012.

[xix] Chin, Josh, “Chinese Scholars Call for Revision of One-Child Policy,” Wall Street Journal, July 6, 2012, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052702303962304577509062660508548.html

[xx] Chin, Josh, “Chinese Scholars Call for Revision of One-Child Policy,” Wall Street Journal, July 6, 2012, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052702303962304577509062660508548.html

[xxi] Chin, Josh, “Chinese Scholars Call for Revision of One-Child Policy,” Wall Street Journal, July 6, 2012, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052702303962304577509062660508548.html

[xxii] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2008, http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=110_house_hear...

[xxiii] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2008, http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=110_house_hear...

[xxiv] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2010, http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=111_cong_house...

[xxv] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2010, http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=111_cong_house...

[xxvi] The Economist, “China’s Population: Only and Lonely,” The Economist, June 21, 2011. http://www.economist.com/node/18988926

[xxvii] Wang Feng, 2005, Can China Afford One Child Policy? http://www.eastwestcenter.org/fileadmin/stored/pdfs//api077.pdf

[xxviii] Jiang Fang, National Family Planning Commission deputy minister, referenced at http://www.lifenews.com/int1091.html

[xxix] Li Wenfang, “Private Hospitals Offer Women ‘Twin’ Pills,” China Daily, July 27, 2011. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/cndy/2011-07/27/content_12989236.htm

[xxx] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2009, http://www.cecc.gov/pages/annualRpt/annualRpt09/CECCannRpt2009.pdf

[xxxi] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2009, http://www.cecc.gov/pages/annualRpt/annualRpt09/CECCannRpt2009.pdf

[xxxii] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2009, http://www.cecc.gov/pages/annualRpt/annualRpt09/CECCannRpt2009.pdf

[xxxiii] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2009, http://www.cecc.gov/pages/annualRpt/annualRpt09/CECCannRpt2009.pdf

[xxxiv] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2010, http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=111_cong_house...

[xxxv] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2009, http://www.cecc.gov/pages/annualRpt/annualRpt09/CECCannRpt2009.pdf

[xxxvi] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2009, http://www.cecc.gov/pages/annualRpt/annualRpt09/CECCannRpt2009.pdf

[xxxvii] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2009, http://www.cecc.gov/pages/annualRpt/annualRpt09/CECCannRpt2009.pdf

[xxxviii] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2009, http://www.cecc.gov/pages/annualRpt/annualRpt09/CECCannRpt2009.pdf

[xxxix] British Medical Journal, BMJ 2009; 338:b1211, http://www.bmj.com/content/338/bmj.b1211.full


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