Forced Abortion Statistics

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Each year, millions of aspiring mothers in China are forced to undergo abortions or sterilizations under the One-Child Policy. For the majority of Chinese people, pregnancy with a second child and any pregnancy without a birth permit is considered "out-of-plan" and therefore illegal. Family Planning Officials, tasked with ensuring "out-of-plan" children are never born, track down pregnant women and forcibly terminate pregnancies. Pregnancy termination methods can be unsafe, often lacking anesthetics and proper sanitation. The consequences can be hemorrhaging, infections, or lifelong injuries such as paralysis—in some cases even death.

 

 

(Photo: Feng Jianmei after the forced abortion of her 7-month-old baby in June 2012.)

 

forced abortion cases

Click here to read detailed reports of the latest forced abortion cases in China.

 

 

Statistics about Forced Abortion in China

 

 

Female Suicide in China

 

In China, suicide rates are higher for women than men,[i] while in all other countries (with the exception of the small island nation of São Tomé and Príncipe) the suicide rate is higher for men than for women.[ii]

 

In fact, the Beijing Suicide Research and Prevention Center reported in 2009 that the suicide rate for females was three times higher than for males.[iii]

 

Suicide is the leading cause of death for adult women living in rural areas in China.[iv]

 

56% of the world’s female suicides occur in China,[v] but only 19% of the world’s population lives in China.[vi]

 

In more rural areas of China, suicide accounts for one third of all female deaths.[vii]

 

500 women commit suicide in China each day.[viii]

 

Easy access to pesticides contributes to the prevalence of suicides among rural women.[ix]

 

Violence against women and girls, discrimination in education and employment, the traditional preference for male children, birth-limitation policies, and other societal factors contribute to the high female suicide rate.[x]

 

According to researcher Steven Mosher, it is no accident that, “China's women have the highest suicide rate in the world, not to mention the highest rates of breast cancer, all in consequence of having had their babies killed in utero by a state ruthlessly bent on population control.”[xi]

 

 

Abortion Statistics in China

 

Chinese data show that 13 million abortions are performed each year, for an average rate of 35,000 abortions per day.[xii]

 

One field researcher has concluded that he is fairly certain that most of the 13 million annual abortions are forced.[xiii]

 

According to Steven Mosher, most of the millions of abortions carried out in China have the character of a rape; that is, they were performed on women who were ordered, or even physically forced, to submit to the knife.[xiv]

 

Since 1971, doctors have performed 336 million abortions, have performed 196 million sterilizations, and have inserted 403 million intrauterine devices. (For comparison, in the US, where the population is about one-quarter the size of China’s, an estimated 50 million abortions have been performed since 1973.)[xv]

 

55% of all women in China have had an abortion and 27.3% of women in their 20’s—about 27.3 million women—have had an abortion.[xvi]

 

In 2000, more than half of all abortions in China were a result of prenatal sex selection.[xvii]

 

One survey of 8,846 women showed that of those women who have had one abortion, 35.97% have another abortion shortly after the first one.[xviii]

 

An average of 8 million women undergo abortions every year in China.[xix]

 

The abortion rate among women in China is 29.3%, which far exceeds the average level of other developed nations; in the population of 20-29 year-old young women, the abortion rate is 62%.[xx]

 

In Shanghai, Beijing and other large cities, the rate of repeat abortion is higher than 50%.[xxi]

 

Regulations requiring women who violate family-planning policy to terminate their pregnancies still exist in the 25th, 42nd, and 22nd provisions of the Population and Family Control Regulation of Liaoning, Jilin, and Heilongjiang provinces, respectively. An additional 10 provinces--Fujian, Guizhou, Guangdong, Gansu, Jiangxi, Qinghai, Sichuan, Shanxi, Shaanxi, and Yunnan--require unspecified "remedial measures" to deal with unauthorized pregnancies.[xxii]

 

While some researchers have suggested that Hepatitis is responsible for the high sex ratio, this is not supported by the evidence.  Looking at the 2000 census data, if a second child is a male it will arrive, on average, 4 months later than a second born female.  This delay in birth indicates that there is human intervention, abortions or infanticide, taking place before the birth of a male second child.[xxiii]

 

 

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Annual Abortion Numbers by Country[xxiv]

Abortion Numbers by Country (1980-2010)[xxv]

 

Women’s Rights in China

 

9% of ministerial positions are held by women in China.[xxviii]

 

As of 2012, 21% of seats in parliament are held by women in China.[xxix]

 

China’s international ranking with regard to female political participation dropped from 12th place in 1994 to 52nd in 2009.[xxx]

 

Women make up over 60% of the rural workforce, but only just over 10% of village committee members.[xxxi]

 

Female representation at the highest levels of the central government and the Communist Party falls short of international norms and remains far from equal to that of males. For example, in 2012, women held 1 out of 25 positions in the Political Bureau of the Communist Party Central Committee, 13 out of 204 full memberships in the Communist Party Central Committee, and 4 out of 35 positions in the State Council.[xxxii]

 

In 2009, women headed two of the country’s 28 ministries, and one woman is the governor of a province.[xxxiii]

 

Chinese law states that women should occupy at least 50% of government positions at the national, provincial and city level.[xxxiv]

 

A survey released in February 2011 by the educational consulting firm MyCOS reported that the income gap between male and female graduates increased with their level of education. For example, on a monthly basis, males with vocational school degrees reportedly earned an average of 169 yuan (US$26) more than females, males with undergraduate degrees reportedly earned an average of 330 yuan (US$51) more than females, and males with graduate degrees earned an average of 815 yuan (US$126) more than females.[xxxv]

 

According to a January 2011 Shaanxi Provincial Women’s Federation survey, 70 percent of those surveyed believed that males have an easier time finding a job than females, and 44 percent of females surveyed reported that they had encountered discrimination based on their marital or childbearing status, compared to 13.9 percent of their male counterparts.[xxxvi]

 

According to a September 2009 All-China Women’s Federation survey, over 90 percent of the female college students interviewed felt they had experienced gender discrimination in their job searches.[xxxvii]

                                                                   

According to an All-China Women’s Federation (ACWF) and National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) joint survey released in October 2011, approximately one out of four college students and one out of five ‘‘female professional respondents’’ reported encountering discrimination in job hiring. The survey also polled women who held senior positions in education, engineering, government, and enterprise, and found that 31 percent of these respondents reported slower rates of promotion than equally qualified male coworkers.[xxxviii]

 

An All-China Women’s Federation (ACWF) and National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) survey released in October 2011 found that the annual income of female urbanites is 67 percent of that of their male counterparts, and that women laborers earn only half of what men do in rural areas.[xxxix]

 

In April 2012, international non-profit business organization Catalyst reported that women in China earned on average 31% less than men for doing similar work.[xl]

 

According to a survey cited in a February 2010 Women’s Watch-China report, 15 percent of the companies surveyed pay higher wages to male employees than to their female counterparts for the same work.[xli]

 

Another survey released in March 2010 by an educational consulting firm reportedly revealed that, of the students who found jobs, males earned an average of 361 yuan (US$53) per month more than females.[xlii]

 

According to a China University of Political Science and Law survey report released in July 2010, employment discrimination occurs at a high frequency in 60.7% of state-operated enterprises, 43.44% of government agencies, and 38.61% of public institutions.[xliii]

 

Job postings in the prosperous Shenzhen Special Economic Zone specifically expressed interest in men over women, and those that did include women inquired about marital status, proof of birth control and childbirth history.[xliv]

 

Mandatory retirement ages for women in China continue to be 5 to 10 years earlier than those for men.[xlv]

                                            

The problem of domestic violence remains widespread, reportedly affecting more than one-third of Chinese families.[xlvi]

 

While domestic violence tended to be more prevalent in rural areas, it also took place among the highly educated urban population. The ACWF reported that approximately one-quarter of the 400,000 divorces registered each year were the result of family violence.[xlvii]

 

According to a May 2010 survey published by the Qian Qian law firm, 17.2% of the women surveyed reported experiencing sexual harassment from their bosses, 28.7% reported experiencing sexual harassment from their colleagues, and 54.1% expressed that they had experienced sexual harassment from people other than their bosses or colleagues, such as clients, patients, and others with whom they must interact for work purposes.[xlviii]

 

An April 2011 article published by a Chinese business investigation group reported that 84 percent of women in China had experienced some form of sexual harassment and that 50 percent of this harassment had occurred in the workplace.[xlix]

 

One-Child Policy Punishment in China

 

Mandatory abortion, which is often referred to as “remedial measures” (bujiu cuoshi) in government reports, is endorsed explicitly as an official policy instrument in the regulations of 18 of China's 31 provincial-level jurisdictions.[l]

 

Chinese law does not stipulate punishment for officials who demand or implement forced abortion.[li]

 

In accordance with national measures, local governments direct officials to punish non-compliance with heavy fines, termed ‘‘social support fees’’ (shehui fuyang fei), which force many couples to choose between undergoing an unwanted abortion and incurring a fine much greater than the average annual income.[lii]

 

Children may go without household registration (hukou) in China because they are born out of plan and their parents do not pay the necessary fines.  Lack of a valid hukou raises barriers to access to social benefits typically linked to the hukou, including subsidized healthcare and public education.[liii]

 

In the late 1990’s, there were a reported 300,000 officials whose job was to enforce the One-Child Policy. In 2005, China’s Family Planning Association claimed a membership of 92 million members, organized into more than a million branches, who helped out with enforcement.[liv]

 

Officials are given a financial incentive structure to meet abortion and sterilization quotas, leading to extortion and coercion.[lv]

 

The vaginas of rural women are routinely checked to ensure that there was no recent birth.[lvi]

 

The law states that family-planning bureaus will conduct pregnancy tests on married women and provide them with unspecified "follow-up" services. Some provinces fined women who did not undergo periodic pregnancy tests.[lvii]

 

In 2008, Chongqing out-of-quota residents were imposed fines of between 5,000 yuan (US$731) and 10,000 yuan (US$1,464) if they refused to perform an abortion, in addition to the ordinary social compensation fee of 2,000 yuan (US$293) to 5,000 yuan (US$731).[lviii]

 

In 2008, Shanxi couples were assessed a social compensation fee equal to 20% of a couple’s combined income once each year for seven years; for a third child, the fine rose to 40% of combined income for 14 years.[lix]

 

The One-Child Policy seems to be causally linked to the increased sex ratio in China. Mothers who face stricter restrictions and higher fines are more likely to have a son once they are facing possible punishment.  One example is the birth rates of women who have had a single daughter.  The sex ratio of children born after this first daughter changes based on the policy being enforced, with the mothers in the one child area being 3 percentage points more likely to have a son.[lx]

 

According to economist Ebenstein, higher fines lead to an increased sex ratio.  He calculates that a 100% increase in the fine for an additional child leads to about a 1% increase in the fraction of male births.[lxi]

 

Some local governments offer rewards to informants who report population planning violations. Local government reports during the 2011 reporting year mentioned rewards for informants in amounts ranging from 100 yuan (US$15) to 6,000 yuan (US$926) per case for verified information on violations by either citizens or officials, including concealment of out-of-plan births, false reports of medical procedures, and falsified family planning documents.[lxii]

 

Local governments incentivize family planning officials to ensure strict implementation of population planning policies. For example, in March 2011, the Maojing township government in Qingyang city, Gansu province, issued a report on the ‘‘outstanding results’’ of the government’s ‘‘rectification activities.’’ The report calls for officials to ‘‘spare no efforts’’ in implementing population policies and notes that village cadres face a penalty of 1,500 yuan (US$230) for each woman with two daughters whom they fail to sterilize. Conversely, they are promised a reward of 500 yuan (US$77) for each tubal ligation that they see through to completion.[lxiii]

 

Many provinces link job promotion with an officials ability to meet or exceed population planning targets, thus providing a powerful structural incentive for officials to employ coercive measures in order to meet population goals.[lxiv]

 

An example of abortion quotas: in 2009, Yunnan officials developed a implementation plan that outlined abortion targets for specific groups: ‘‘strictly prohibit the birth of multiple children; for women who have multiple out-of-plan children and become pregnant again, the abortion rate must reach 100 percent; for women who have two out-of-plan children and become pregnant again, the abortion rate must exceed 90 percent; for women who have one out-of-plan child and become pregnant again, the abortion rate must exceed 85 percent.’’[lxv]

 

An example of invasive local enforcement: In a small village in remote Guangdong, a director of a local family planning center showed reporter Ma Jian the record book that meticulously charted the menstrual cycles and pelvic examination results of every woman of childbearing age in the village. The director said that 98% of the 280 women were fitted with IUDs, and that every three months, he broadcast an announcement through the village summoning every woman for a mandatory ultrasound to check that her IUD is still in place.[lxvi]

 

In 2007, Hubei expelled 500 cadres and dismissed 395 government officials, including 3 provincial lawmakers and 4 members of the local Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), for having ‘‘unauthorized’’ children.[lxvii]

 

From February to April, 2010, Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province was the site of a high-profile court proceeding in which a 30-year-old female plaintiff sued the local Family Planning Bureau, claiming that she had been barred from a civil service position in the county government for giving birth to a child before marriage. Although she married the father soon after the child's birth, the court ruled that the Family Planning Bureau's original decree citing the birth as out of wedlock held, which did make her ineligible for the government position.[lxviii]

 

Teachers who violate birth quotas are at risk of losing their retirement benefits.[lxix]

 

In one province, officials in 2010 vowed to engage in a “100-day battle” in which they would “insist without wavering on the principle of IUD insertion after the first child, surgical sterilization after the second child, and abortion of out-of-plan pregnancies.”[lxx]

 

One Guangdong law gives these orders to officials:  “Strictly prohibit out-of-plan second births or multiple births; those who have out-of-plan pregnancies must adopt abortion measures, force those who exceed birth limits to have an abortion. Out-of-plan children will not be allowed to enjoy benefits for villagers; for a period of 15 years, parents of out-of-plan children will not be allowed to enjoy benefits for villagers, gain employment at a village-run enterprise, or be granted documents.”[lxxi]

 

When the Family Planning Police sterilize women for violating the One-Child Policy, these sterilizations are most often not performed by highly trained gynecological surgeons, especially in the countryside. Often, there are infections and other complications.[lxxii]

 

Reports in Guangxi claimed that fines for violating the One-Child Policy ranged from 500 yuan, or about $65, to 70,000 yuan, or about $9,000.[lxxiii]

 

The highest fines are charged in Shanghai, where a violator faces a minimum fine of about 63,000 yuan (more than $10,200) or a maximum fine of about 413,800 yuan (more than $67,000). The maximum fine equals 11.4 years of average urban annual income and 25.8 years of average rural annual income.[lxxiv]

 

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[i] World Health Organization, Woman and Health: Today’s Evidence, Tomorrow’s Agenda, 2009, pg. 54 http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2009/9789241563857_eng.pdf

[ii] World Health Organization, “Suicide Rates per 100,000 by Country, Year and Sex (Table),” 2011 http://www.who.int/mental_health/prevention/suicide_rates/en/

[iii] U.S. State Department, U.S. Department of State 2010 Human Rights Report on China, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2010/eap/154382.htm

[iv] World Health Organization, Woman and Health: Today’s Evidence, Tomorrow’s Agenda, 2009, pg. 54 http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2009/9789241563857_eng.pdf

[v] Dubois, Matthew, “The Last Resort: China’s Growing Suicide Problem,” The World of Chinese, March 12, 2013 http://www.theworldofchinese.com/2013/03/the-last-resort-chinas-growing-suicide-problem/

[vi] China.org.cn, “Chinese Account for 19 Percent of World Population, Government, July 11, 2011 http://www.china.org.cn/china/2011-07/11/content_22967992.htm

[vii] Dubois, Matthew, “The Last Resort: China’s Growing Suicide Problem,” The World of Chinese, March 12, 2013 http://www.theworldofchinese.com/2013/03/the-last-resort-chinas-growing-suicide-problem/

[viii] U.S. State Department, U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2009, http://www.cecc.gov/pages/annualRpt/annualRpt09/CECCannRpt2009.pdf

[ix] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2009, http://www.cecc.gov/pages/annualRpt/annualRpt09/CECCannRpt2009.pdf

[x] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2010, http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=111_cong_house...

[xi] Bohon, Dave, “China Reports 336 Million Abortions in Last 40 Years,” The New American, March 20, 2013 http://www.thenewamerican.com/world-news/item/14845-china-reports-336-million-abortion-in-last-forty-years

[xii] Data from China’s National Family Planning Commission, as reported by China Daily and cited in: Jiang, Vicky, “Of the 13 Million Abortions in China, Most are Forced,” Epoch Times, December 9, 2012, http://www.theepochtimes.com/n2/china-news/one-child-policy-abortions-in-china-most-are-forced-21819-all.html

[xiii] Jiang, Vicky, “Of the 13 Million Abortions in China, Most are Forced,” Epoch Times, December 9, 2012, http://www.theepochtimes.com/n2/china-news/one-child-policy-abortions-in-china-most-are-forced-21819-all.html

[xiv] Bohon, Dave, “China Reports 336 Million Abortions in Last 40 Years,” The New American, March 20, 2013 http://www.thenewamerican.com/world-news/item/14845-china-reports-336-million-abortion-in-last-forty-years

[xv] Foreign Times, “Data reveal scale of China abortions,” March 15, 2013, http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/6724580a-8d64-11e2-82d2-00144feabdc0.html#axzz2Nhxzw6d3

[xvi] Shanghai Institute of Family Planning Technical Instruction, as cited by Stephen Ertelt, “More Than 13 Million Abortions a Year in China, 55 Percent of Women Have One,” LifeNews.com, February 18, 2009t http://www.lifenews.com/int1091.html

[xvii] Eberstadt, Nicholas, “A Global War Against Baby Girls: Sex-Selective Abortion Becomes a Worldwide Practice,”  American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, May 1, 2011. http://www.allgirlsallowed.org/global-war-against-baby-girls-sex-selecti...

[xviii] Shanghai Institute of Family Planning Technical Instruction, as cited by Stephen Ertelt, “More Than 13 Million Abortions a Year in China, 55 Percent of Women Have One,” LifeNews.com, February 18, 2009t http://www.lifenews.com/int1091.html

[xxii] U.S. State Department, U.S. Department of State 2010 Human Rights Report on China, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2010/eap/154382.htm

[xxiii] Avraham Ebenstein, “The ‘Missing Girls’ of China and the Unintended Consequences of the One Child Policy,” Journal of Human Resources 45.1 (2010): 87-115. http://pluto.huji.ac.il/~ebenstein/Ebenstein_OneChildPolicy_2010.pdf

[xxiv] U.S.A. stats for 2005, Alan Guttmacher Institute; Australian stats for 2003, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare; Canadian stats for 2005, Statistics Canada; China stats from China Daily, 2009; U.K. stats for 2004, U.K. Department of Health (referenced at http://www.theepochtimes.com/n2/content/view/21819/)

[xxv] USA stats from Center for Disease Control & Guttmacher Institute; Australia stats from the Statesman’s Year-Book, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare; Canada stats from Statistics Canada Therapeutic Abortions; UK stats from UK Department of Health; China stats from China Statistical Yearbook, Susan Greenhalgh, William Lavely, National Population and Family Planning Commission, Dudley Poston, Thomas Scharping and China Daily.  Note that as data is incomplete for some years, projected estimates were used based on trends in surrounding years.  Based on China Daily’s report of 13 million abortions in 2008, there is reason to believe that official government officials for 2007 (indicating 7.6 million abortions) are severely underreported.  Thus, China’s 400 million abortions are a low estimate.

[xxix] UN Data, “Seats Held by Women in National Parliament, Percentage,” 2012 http://data.un.org/Data.aspx?q=china&d=MDG&f=seriesRowID%3A557%3BcountryID%3A156

[xxx] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2010, http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=111_cong_house...

[xxxi] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2010, http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=111_cong_house...

[xxxii] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2012, pg. 100 http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-112shrg76190/pdf/CHRG-112shrg76190.pdf

[xxxiii] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2008, http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=110_house_hear...

[xxxiv] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2009, http://www.cecc.gov/pages/annualRpt/annualRpt09/CECCannRpt2009.pdf

[xxxv] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2011, pg. 123, http://www.cecc.gov/pages/annualRpt/annualRpt11/AR2011final.pdf

[xxxvi] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2011, pg. 123, http://www.cecc.gov/pages/annualRpt/annualRpt11/AR2011final.pdf

[xxxvii] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2010, http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=111_cong_house...

[xxxviii] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2012, pg. 101 http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-112shrg76190/pdf/CHRG-112shrg76190.pdf

[xxxix] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2012, pg. 101 http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-112shrg76190/pdf/CHRG-112shrg76190.pdf

[xl] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2012, pg. 101 http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-112shrg76190/pdf/CHRG-112shrg76190.pdf

[xli] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2010, http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=111_cong_house...

[xlii] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2010, http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=111_cong_house...

[xliii] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2010, http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=111_cong_house...

[xliv] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2010, http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=111_cong_house...

[xlv] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2012, pg. 102 http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-112shrg76190/pdf/CHRG-112shrg76190.pdf

[xlvi] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2011, pg. 124, http://www.cecc.gov/pages/annualRpt/annualRpt11/AR2011final.pdf

[xlvii] U.S. State Department, U.S. Department of State 2010 Human Rights Report on China, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2010/eap/154382.htm

[xlviii] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2010, http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=111_cong_house...

[xlix] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2011, pg. 124, http://www.cecc.gov/pages/annualRpt/annualRpt11/AR2011final.pdf

[l] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2012, pg. 90-91 http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-112shrg76190/pdf/CHRG-112shrg76190.pdf

[li] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2012, pg. 90, http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-112shrg76190/pdf/CHRG-112shrg76190.pdf

[lii] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2012, pg. 92-93, http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-112shrg76190/pdf/CHRG-112shrg76190.pdf

[liii] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2012, pg. 93, http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-112shrg76190/pdf/CHRG-112shrg76190.pdf

[liv] Wang Feng, 2005, Can China Afford One Child Policy? http://www.eastwestcenter.org/fileadmin/stored/pdfs//api077.pdf

[lv] U.S. State Department Kemp-Kasten UNFPA Determination (June 26, 2008), p. 5.)

[lvi] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2009, http://www.cecc.gov/pages/annualRpt/annualRpt09/CECCannRpt2009.pdf

[lvii] U.S. State Department, U.S. Department of State 2010 Human Rights Report on China, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2010/eap/154382.htm

[lviii] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2009, http://www.cecc.gov/pages/annualRpt/annualRpt09/CECCannRpt2009.pdf

[lix] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2009, http://www.cecc.gov/pages/annualRpt/annualRpt09/CECCannRpt2009.pdf

[lx] Avraham Ebenstein, “The ‘Missing Girls’ of China and the Unintended Consequences of the One Child Policy,” Journal of Human Resources 45.1 (2010): 87-115. http://pluto.huji.ac.il/~ebenstein/Ebenstein_OneChildPolicy_2010.pdf

[lxi] Avraham Ebenstein, “The ‘Missing Girls’ of China and the Unintended Consequences of the One Child Policy,” Journal of Human Resources 45.1 (2010): 87-115. http://pluto.huji.ac.il/~ebenstein/Ebenstein_OneChildPolicy_2010.pdf

[lxii] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2011, pg. 113, http://www.cecc.gov/pages/annualRpt/annualRpt11/AR2011final.pdf

[lxiii] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2011, pg. 113, http://www.cecc.gov/pages/annualRpt/annualRpt11/AR2011final.pdf

[lxiv] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2009, http://www.cecc.gov/pages/annualRpt/annualRpt09/CECCannRpt2009.pdf

[lxv] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2009, http://www.cecc.gov/pages/annualRpt/annualRpt09/CECCannRpt2009.pdf

[lxvi] Jian, Ma, “China’s Barbaric One-Child Policy,” The Guardian, May 5, 2013, http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2013/may/06/chinas-barbaric-one-child-policy

[lxvii] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2008, http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=110_house_hear...

[lxviii] U.S. State Department, U.S. Department of State 2010 Human Rights Report on China, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2010/eap/154382.htm

[lxix] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2008, http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=110_house_hear...

[lxx] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2010, http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=111_cong_house...

[lxxi] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2010, http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=111_cong_house...

[lxxii] U.S. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2009, http://www.cecc.gov/pages/annualRpt/annualRpt09/CECCannRpt2009.pdf

[lxxiii] Medical News Today, “Penalties For One-Child Policy Violations Prompt Clashes In Southwest China,” May 24, 2007, http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/71801.php

[lxxiv] One‐Child Policy Fines Relative to Income Levels in China, A Report by All Girls Allowed. November 1, 2012. http://www.allgirlsallowed.org/sites/default/files/One-Child%20Policy%20Fines%20Relative%20to%20Income%20Levels%20in%20China%20-%20A%20Report%20by%20All%20Girls%20Allowed.pdf


 

 

 

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